In heterocyclic compounds, instead of carbon, the cyclic ring contains nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Therefore, their common names assume them. They usually have one or more heteroatoms in the ring, and all nucleic acids are examples of such compounds. About 59% of drugs approved by the US FDA contain nitrogen in the ring. Therefore, it is an important area of chemistry, and heterocyclic chemistry homework help professionals are always available for students.
Heterocyclic chemistry originated when organic chemistry developed during the 1800s. Brugnatelli isolated alloxane from uric acid in 1818. Later, in 1832, Döbereiner produced furan compounds using sulfuric acid with starch. Runge collected pyrrole in 1834 using dry distillation. Around 1906, Friedlander overtook the agricultural industry with synthetic chemistry by producing indigo dye. The tribe discovered the petroleum origin by isolating chlorophyll compounds from natural oil, which happened in 1936. However, this was an earlier origin of heterocyclic chemistry. Then, in 1951, Chargaff’s law was introduced, which refers to the use of heterocyclic chemistry in the genetic code such as purine and pyrimidine bases.
It can be classified on the basis of saturation or saturation of the rings and atoms present in the rings. These are discussed below with examples.
- Five-membered ring systems: Antimony, arsenic and bismuth are examples of five-membered rings that contain only one heteroatom. Saturated compounds are stibolene, aresolane while unsaturated are stibolene and aresol.
There is a five-membered ring with imidazoline (2 nitrogen), oxathiolidine (oxygen and sulphur), thiazolidine (sulfur and nitrogen), dioxolane (2 oxygen). These are saturated compounds. This can be studied with the help of heterocyclic chemistry assignments.
Imidazoles, oxathiols, thiazoles are unsaturated compounds. The five-membered rings with three heteroatoms are triazole, furazan, oxadiazole unsaturated compounds.
- Six-membered ring system: The saturated compounds containing a heteroatom are arsene and borene. The unsaturated compounds with one odd atom are arsenine and bismine. Saturated compounds with two heteroatoms are diazines and morpholines, while unsaturated compounds with two are diazines and oxazine.
- Seven-membered ring systems: Examples of saturated compounds containing a heteroatom are azepane and oxpane. The unsaturated compounds with a heteroatom are azepine and oxpine. The two heteroatoms with saturated molecules are diazepines, and unsaturated ones are diazepines.
- They occur naturally or are biosynthesized.
- They are an important part of life, like chlorophyll for plants and heme.
- Amino acids and nucleic acids are composed of heteroatoms and are essential for living beings.
- Alkaloids such as nicotine and caffeine are heterocyclic.
- For the treatment of an antibacterial disease, antibiotics are needed. Penicillins and sulfonamides are some antibiotics that are composed of heteroatoms.
- To protect against insects, triazole is used, which is a heterocyclic insecticide.
- Triazines and pyridine are herbicides that contain nitrogen in their composition.
- Some hormones and dyes produced in industry involve the use of heterocyclic compounds.
- Our food preparation also includes such compounds as carbohydrates, vitamins and proteins.