Enzyme and its market outlook

Enzymes Market

Enzymes:

Enzymes are biological substances used in industrial processes to promote growth rates. They typically serve as biological catalysts within a chemical reaction. Enzymes follow the lock and key model, that is, they are highly specific in nature. Thus, enzymes accomplish the gradation of a particular reaction model. An enzyme increases the reaction rate by reducing the activation energy to convert substrates into products. They are sensitive to extreme temperatures in nature. Thus, stable environmental conditions are maintained during industrial applications for enzymes.

Market outlook for enzymes:

The enzymes were valued at a global market size of USD 10 billion in the year 2019, estimated to have a CAGR of around 8% between the period 2021-2025. The industrial growth rate of this product is mainly governed by the increasing use of enzymes in key sectors such as food and beverage, chemical production, biofuels etc. Increase in technological developments in sectors such as biotechnology is anticipated to fuel the growth of this market. Economically sustainable industrial processes such as biocatalysis via isolated enzymes are often used in hydrolytic and isomerization reactions. This process was developed as a cost-effective method in contrast to the use of whole cells for biocatalysis.

Whole cells are used when co-factors are required for the reaction, i.e. they are usually metallic ions that serve as helper molecules during enzyme activation. They reduce the reaction times associated with biochemical reactions. Normally, co-factors are produced in-vitro. Thus it is economically viable to use metabolically active cells instead.

Key-Value Chain Segment:

Food and beverage industry is one of the major segments of this market. Changes in consumer patterns due to increased health awareness have resulted in an increase in the consumption of functional food products. The increasing demand for high quality food products is one of the major drivers for the use of enzymes in the F&B vertical. Increase in use of natural flavoring as well as flavoring ingredients is also expected to boost the market expansion rate.

Untapped potential for protein engineering within the life sciences and biotechnology industry is also expected to act as a driver for this market. This area of ​​research focuses on the artificial synthesis of various enzymes for inducing chemical reactions. Protein engineering is expected to be one of the significant value additions for this product as it completes the value chain expansion for this vertical. Another factor driving market demand is the increase in population density over the past decade. Additionally, the start of the pandemic, COVID-19, has led to an increase in the consumption of dietary supplements. Subsequently, customized enzymes have been developed to meet the growing demand for healthier food options.

The growth in the market is expected to be supported by increase in R&D investment in biotechnology as well as pharmaceutical sector. The strong research infrastructure within regions such as NA and APAC is expected to increase the market penetration rate of this product.

Major segments of this market:

Biological enzymes are derived from three main sources which include plants, animals as well as microorganisms. Microorganism based enzymes account for a major market segment owing to their increasing penetration in the market. The market is expected to grow with the use of fungus-based enzymes within industry verticals such as soy sauce, beer, baked goods as well as processed foods production.

Regional development trends for this market:

North America dominates the industrial enzymes market. The presence of major players within the biotechnology industry supports the growth dynamics. The use of enzymes is expected to be one of the key drivers in the development of sustainable fuel alternatives such as biofuels. The US government has adopted a number of measures to increase fuel-based sustainability. Initiatives such as the Renewable Fuel Standards Program (2005) serve as one of the key drivers for growth in biofuel research. Additionally, the European Union has also taken initiatives that support the establishment of a circular economy.

The meat processing sector is also a major contributor to this market. According to the FAO, increasing consumption of meat products within the EU and APAC is expected to drive demand for enzymes within the F&B industry.

Industrial process limits for enzymes

Enzymes account for the maximum segment of the operating cost during an industrial process. Therefore, enzymes are typically recovered and reused to optimize cost. Biocatalytic reactions occur as a batch process to accomplish efficient recovery and separation of the products from the enzyme. The reactions take place in an aqueous medium (in the presence of an organic solvent) which promotes ease of separation.

The bioconversion within this reaction is usually followed by a dissociation process. This method inhibits enzyme activity due to product accumulation. Process design engineers around the world are trying to develop solutions to optimize both enzyme recovery as well as process efficiency. The development of in-situ separation processes is expected to drive manufacturing capacity for biochemical reactions.

Furthermore, processes such as immobilization of enzymes further enhance the efficiency associated with enzyme recovery. Immobilization of enzymes on a solid material (for example, a porous material) is expected to improve process efficiency. Prior to industrial application, the properties of enzymes such as activity, stability, selectivity (towards non-natural substrates), and inhibition (through the accumulation of reaction products) can be artificially modified through this process. Reagents with low toxicity are commonly used for this application.

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